Chicago is a style of referencing originated in 1906 by University of Chicago for the acknowledgment of source material and production of a publication.
Chicago style of referencing is mainly used by historians to cite a wide range of source material. It is also used widely in the subject of humanities to acknowledge the workings that had been done to strengthen new ideas. It is used for citing several other topics as Art History, Culture, Philosophy, Anthropology, Arts Management, Criminology, International Studies, Religion, Visual Cultures, and Fine Arts.
It allows scholars a few unique arrangements while writing a paper. It permits the blending of formats, given that the outcome is clear and reliable. For example, the 15th edition of Chicago Referencing enables a writer to use footnotes/endnotes along with in-text citation; it even serves varieties in styles of footnotes and endnotes, depending upon whether the paper incorporates a full list of sources toward the end.
Up to date, Chicago style has been upgraded with the seventeenth editions to encourage the writers, which clearly shows the flexible behavior of it.
Referencing style has been updated in December 2017 with its 17th edition. The new release of the Chicago Manual has rolled out critical improvements in which a few sources are referred to in this referencing style.
(A) In-Text Citation
Chicago citation offers an author-date system, so it consists of writer’s name and publication date given wholly or in round brackets.
In sciences and sociologies, the author-date framework is more typical. In this system, sources are briefly referred to in the content, by author’s last name and year of publication. Each in-content reference coordinates with a passage in a reference list, where full bibliographic data is given.
Following are some example that illustrates In-Text Citation for Chicago Style. Its correspondence citation from reference list follows each In-Text Citation.
1. Method of referencing a book
In-Text Citation: (Grazer and Fishman 2015, 12)
Reference List Entry: Grazer, Brian, and Charles Fishman. 2015. A Curious Mind: The Secret to a Bigger Life. New York: Simon & Schuster.
2. Citation style of a journal article
In-Text Citation: (LaSalle 2017, 95)
Reference List Entry: LaSalle, Peter. 2017. “Conundrum: A Story about Reading.” New England Review 38 (1): 95–109. Project MUSE.
3. The pattern of sourcing a website
In-Text Citation: (Yale University, n.d.)
Reference List Entry: Yale University. n.d. “About Yale: Yale Facts.” Accessed April 1, 2018. https://www.yale.edu/about-yale/yale-facts.
(B) Notes and Bibliography
Writers working in subjects like humanities, history, arts, and literature prefer notes and bibliography system. In this framework, sources are referred to in numbered references or endnotes. Each note relates to a raised (superscript) number in the content. Sources are commonly recorded in a separate reference list.
The notes and bibliography framework can suit a wide variety of sources, including unusual ones that don’t fit perfectly into the writer date framework.
Following are examples which show the listing of references in the Bibliography.
1- Citation of a book
Note: 2. Brian Grazer and Charles Fishman, A Curious Mind: The Secret to a Bigger Life (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2015), 12.
Short End Note: Grazer and Fishman, Curious Mind, 37.
2- Referencing the journal article
Note: Peter LaSalle, “Conundrum: A Story about Reading,” New England Review38, no. 1 (2017): 95, Project MUSE.
Short End Note: LaSalle, “Conundrum,” 101.
3- Website referencing