Pattern Of OSCOLA / OXFORD Referencing Style

Referencing is recognizing the sources you discuss when composing your task or dissertation. You should identify the source inside the content, and within footnotes, and give full details of each sentence inserted a list of references (where required).

The style of referencing most ordinarily used to cite (reference) both essential and optional lawful material is called OSCOLA. This is the style permitted by the College of Law. OSCOLA was initially created for use inside Oxford University, yet is currently utilized by schools in the UK and abroad, and by numerous proper journals and papers.


It is used to demonstrate the jurisdiction for the previous content or theory. There will be a superscript number in-content which relates to the significant expert at the end of the page.

In-text Example: In particular, investigative journalism has brought to the public massive offshore dealings that have benefited a few numbers of people through systemic tax shortfalls.

Footnote Example: Hoyt L Barber, Tax Havens Today: The Benefits And Pitfalls Of Banking And Investing Offshore. (Wiley 2007).


This is situated toward the end of the work and incorporates a sorted rundown of all sources utilized in task. A full clarification of the reference index can be found toward the finish of this guide.

OSCOLA Reference Examples

The following guidelines give examples of the citation required in the footnote. There are minor amendments required with the author’s name in the bibliography.

UK Cases – Primary Source

You need to give the full name of the case with its unbiased citation when you are referencing a case as authority. Case name should always be in italics both in-text and the footnotes, but not the bibliography.

cattleship v rexton [1991] 8 QB 671

cartridge v prittenden [1986] 2 ZZR 1402

Secondary Sources

Books with one author

Author, | title | (edition, | publisher, | year)

Christian Stewart, UK Law, (5th edition, Oxford University Press, 2013)

James Rodriguez, Quality Surveying, (3rd edition, Butterworths, 2012)


Author, | ‘title’ | [year] | volume | journal name or abbreviation | first page of an article

Harley Gibson, ‘Getting their fact together? Implementing statutory reform of offenses against the person’ [2015] 8 Crim LR 691

Can Rawson, ‘Corporate environment by the upright management – a gap for the unwary’ [2017] 28(7) Insolvency Intelligence 71

Websites and blogs

If there is no writer, start the citation with the title. If there is no publication date, provide the date you accessed it.

Author | ‘title’ | (Website, date) | | accessed

Marilyn Samuel, ‘License petitions: then and now’ (Marilyn Samuel, August 10 2017) accessed 4 August 2017

‘Europe rights in all European countries (CNN, 5 September 2013) accessed 5 September 2013